Early childhood education is vital because, according to Solehuddin (1997: 23), toddler age is a critical stage in a child’s development, and children who receive adequate stimulation in growing both sides of the brain will be ready to learn successfully in primary school.
Early childhood education (PAUD) is a type of education that focuses on laying the foundation for physical, cognitive, emotional, and spiritual growth and development.
Research shows that human intellectual growth reaches 50% at four years, 80% at eight years, and 100% at 18 years (Santoso, 2011: 7).
According to research, the early years are the most critical for child brain development, accounting for 80% of brain growth, with the remaining 20% developing after the early years until the age of 18.
Per the National Education Act of 2003, paragraph 14, early childhood education is designed to guide children aged 0-6 years old through educational stimulation to grow and develop as well as semen and spiritual education.
Early childhood education aims to develop children’s potential to become noble, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, critical, creative, innovative, independent, confident, and democratic citizens.
According to Taba in Oliva (1992), “A curriculum is a blueprint for learning.”
The program provides many opportunities for youngsters to learn (Simanullang et al., 2020).
Early childhood curriculum must be created to maximize child development.
The curriculum must be planned and adapted to meet the needs and growth of children, including intellectual, language, physical, and social-emotional development.
Social ability is defined as voluntary activity that benefits or pleases others without expecting external rewards (Bartal in Susanto.2011: 138).
To adapt to group norms, morals, and traditions, integrate into one entity, interact with one another, and work together, Musyarofah (2017: 101) thinks.
Agree with Hurlock (2000: 250) that social development is the acquisition of social demands.
This is in line with Allen and Marotz (2010: 31) who state that social development encompasses feelings and relates to people’s actions and responses to other people.
So, according to some, social competence is the ability of youngsters to manage their emotions with peers or adults in their environment.
It is important for young children to develop positive self-concepts and attitudes toward learning as well as self-control and empathy for others.
The social environment shapes children’s social development.
The social environment must then be able to assist or create possibilities for positive child development, allowing the child to mature socially.
The social environment, however, can be detrimental to children’s religious and moral development. Abusive parents often berate and ignore their children, providing no guidance, role models, teaching, or habituation of children’s religious and moral development.
Youngsters who often quarrel with their pals, children who mock each other, forcing, insulting and disturbing other children who are performing their work.
There are children who are not emotionally fast when working, children who do not respect their peers when working, and children who do not like to learn together.
Similarly, Perdani (2014: 130) discovered issues with social skills in pupils who prefer to play alone, do not want to interact or socialize with other children, are difficult to control, and like to dispute.
A family and school environment that does not encourage our children’s creativity is one of the possible explanations for low creativity in Indonesian children, according to Supriadi (Yeni Rahmawati & Euis Kurniati 2011: 9).
Developing children’s self-concept involves help and cooperation from teachers and parents as a type of early childhood encouragement.
One’s self-concept is an image or view of oneself formed by a shared attitude and conviction (Surya, 2014, p. 86).
The self is divided into two parts: negative and positive.
Early childhood is when essential personality patterns are laid in infancy.
It includes talents, abilities, and attributes that play a significant role in adapting to life (Hurlock, Martinis Yamin, 2013:89).
The concept of self is one’s view of himself as a whole.
In actuality, however, refraction does not fully establish self-concept in all children due to the characteristics or backgrounds of their parents.
Several children with unfavorable self-consequences can attest to this.
Negative self-concepts include children who are gloomy about competition, sensitive to criticism, and unable to place themselves with their environment.
There are youngsters that have good self-concepts and are optimistic about competition, such as working hard on tasks, and can position themselves with their environment.
Developing children’s self-concept involves help and cooperation from instructors and parents as a kind of encouragement.
Teachers have a vital role in helping students develop their self-concept in the school setting.
The teacher’s responsibility begins with planning, implementing, and spotting impediments.
As a result, early childhood education is an endeavor by instructors to encourage and develop active child development, as well as the formation of self-concepts within the family and school setting.
Children’s talents and abilities can be improved through appropriate learning methods such as role playing, field trips, conversations, demonstrations, projects, story telling, and assignments.
Methods for developing children’s communication abilities include role acting, speaking, and storytelling.
The role-playing learning method trains youngsters to articulate their thoughts, hopes, and desires within the tale or role offered.
The role playing method also gives a unique environment for pupils to study in a playful manner without being burdened by developmental duties.
Demonstrating, identifying, describing, and discussing the problem-solving component of learning.
Since children can recognize and demonstrate different emotions when communicating their feelings, role playing has advantages over other methods.
As stated by the Ministry of National Education (2005: 13), “role playing is a manner of delivering experience to children by having them perform certain roles in a role play.”
Playing purchasing and selling veggies, rescuing children from falls, and so on.
Most significantly, role playing helps children develop social skills by teaching them how to communicate effectively both verbally and nonverbally.
A study on “The Effect of Role Playing Methods and Children’s Self Concept on Social Capabilities of Children 5-6 Years Old in Kindergarten An-Nisa Medan” will be conducted by the writer.